A brief summary of the various contributors to the Texas Longhorn.
The second voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1493 brought Spanish cattle to the Americas which were the first cattle to land on the continent. Brought via the Canary Islands into the Caribbean, the last recorded imports from that colony establishment was in 1512 having brought in 17 shipments of stock. Trained for draught and predominantly black or dark in coat, Spanish Retinta and Andalusian type was used.
With no additional genetic inputs for approximately 200 years, the cattle roamed west into what is now Texas by the 1600's.
Recent research by DNA background has indicated that those Spanish stock related back to Middle East and Indian origins. Reference to work by E McTavish at UT on 'Evolutionary History' published in Nat Academy of Sciences 3.26.13
What may be regarded as offshoots of this Spanish stock are the Corriente, Pineywood and Florida Cracker, with little British breed influence.
As early as 1788 the English Longhorn was landed in Maryland and Jamaica. (ref. V Porter)
Western migration of people had introductions of some British breeds including the Hereford, Shorthorn/Durham and English Longhorn or Bakewell influence. It was not until 1830s that western cattle breeders noted changes in the rangeland Spanish stock, being smaller and mostly plain colour to larger and more varied colours.
Some Bos Indicus infusion in early 1900's did occur but with selection has been limited.
The rangeland Texas Longhorn declined to such an extent that in the 1920's that moves were made to preserve the remnants of the breed and keep them relatively pure to an original type.
This gave rise to the 'Seven Families' of foundation Texas Longhorn which conserved the breed into the modern era.
A herdbook Registrar was established in 1964 assisted by Charles Schriener III of YO Ranch.